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What is LED?

What is LED?

LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into light. The heart of a LED is a semiconductor chip of which one side is bonded to the top of reflector cup often called the anvil. The anvil carries the negative current. The other side of the semiconductor is connected with a micro wire often referred to as the whisker do not use hyphens, format the paragraphs so that only whole words are used, which supplies the positive current, This assembly is encapsulated in such a way as the upper half of the epoxy resin encapsulation is precisely shaped and acts as a lens to alter the beam angle or divergence.

A semiconductor chip consists of two parts, one is called P-type semiconductor where holes dominate the region, and the other part is N-type semiconductor where is dominate by electrons. When they are sandwiched together, there is a PN junction in between. When an electric current is applied to the chip through the lead, electrons are pushed across the junction into the P-region. There electrons and holes meet and recombine and then release energy in the form of photons of light. This is why LEDs shine. The wavelength (color) of the light depends on the materials forming the PN junction which is the materials use to make the LED chip.

The development of LED can be roughly divided into three stages, which are the advent of red and green LEDs, and then blue LED, and then the white LED.

Red and Green LEDs have been around for decades but they are all monochromatic (single wavelength) in nature. Applied as light sources, objects illuminated would all be colored with one single wavelength and would detract or often conflict with the natural color of the illuminated object.

It has been a long hard path of discovery and development until Shull Nakamura, a Japanese scientist, managed to make a blue light LED from gallium nitride in 1993. This turned out to be a crucial breakthrough in the development of LED.

With the advent of the blue LED the combination of RGB LEDs enabled a new application of LED technology in the way of RGB based white illumination. Coupled with more advanced intensity control full spectrum ROB LED projection came to be. The advent of the blue LED technology enabled the application of fill in the space here with the next part of the sentence ultimate aim of LED development is super-bright white light LEDs that can actually replace the conventional light sources which is being realized today.

Features and benefits of LEDs

The inherent features of LEDs is decidedly the ability of LEDs to become the best alternative to conventional light sources, and provide a wider range of applications

Small Size

An LED is essentially a microscopic that, once encapsulated in an epoxy resin, is extremely small and lightweight.

Long Power Consumption

LEDs consume very little power, far less than standard light bulbs leading to greatly reduced energy costs and extremely enhanced global energy savings.

LEDs also require far less energy to manufacture than other light sources, reducing the environmental impact of artificial lighting even further.

Generally a LED is designed to operate at 2 - 3.6V, 0.02-0.03A current which means a LED typically requires no more than 0.1W to operate.

Rugged

LEDs are rugged, solid state devices and are not susceptible to vibration such as with incandescent filament based bulbs.

Long Lifetime

When operating at specified voltage, current, and within specified environmental conditions, LEDs can enjoy a long life of up to 100,000 hours. A newer way to evaluate LED lifetime has been established and adopted by Neo-Neon which is based on lumen depreciation over time to determine the Mean Time between Failure (MTBF).

High Luminous Efficiency and Low heat emitting

Due to the special materials that are used to manufacture LEDs during electrons transition, LED's mainly emit electromagnetic energy in the visible parts of spectrum. This is unlike filaments which are heated and emit large amounts of electromagnetic energy in the infrared spectrum which can't be seen and is felt as heat. That is to say, LEDs can convert significantly more of the energy applied into light, and therefore LEDs have a higher luminous efficiency with substantially lower amounts of heat produced.

Environmental Protection

LEDs are made from non-toxic materials, unlike fluorescent lights that contain mercury which poses a danger to the environment and human health.

WLED - What is White LED

With the advance of the WLED (White LED) technology applied singularly, in clusters, or arrays are now bright enough to be used for General and Commercial Illumination. Homes, Offices, Public Buildings, Shopping Centers, and alike, all around the world are applying new WLED based illumination products.

WLED offers direct replacements to high energy consuming incandescent and now discharge lamp based illumination. With rapid advancements and technology breakthroughs NeoNeonTM now offers a complete range of Color Correlated Color Temperatures (CCT) expressed in Kelvin ranging from 2,000 to 10,000K.

NeoNeonTM is also proud to announce that we have achieved 100 Lumens per Watt with our newest advancements in single chip 1W WLED (White LED) packaged LED. This breakthrough has profound significance in that it assures the market that NeoNeonTM International is a global leader in LED Technology and technological engineering as well as mass production. 100Lm per watt is 20 lumens higher than the recognized global maximum of 80Lm/Watt.

From a sales perspective, this new advancement should open up the doors to large scale replacement of existing high energy consumption incandescent illumination. For the marketplace and the consumer it means an additional 30% savings in energy consumption as well as the benefits of extreme long life. This will save consumer’s significant time and money over the life of their Neo-NeonTM 100Lm/Watt WLED (White LED) based solid-state lighting products.

In September of 2007 we completed testing of our new 50W high power COB (Chip-OnBoard) LED Module. Testing results have proven conclusively that this new 50W COB WLED (White LED) reaches new heights in lumen efficiency. With an astounding 3741 LM consistently produced by our new 50W LED the light efficacy is comparable to that of 7X50W incandescent lamps.

Compared to the existing white LEDs, whose luminous flux figures average around 1256Lm, Neo-Neon's new 50W COB White LED produces 2385Lm more. Part of the success of this new and exciting breakthrough stems from the structural design, the combination of a 10 x 10 array of 100pcs of LED chips, using an advanced re-flow process and precise constant current control.

These new core technologies and techniques were developed to satisfy the growing global need for energy conservation which LED technology is poised to be tomorrow's solution today.

Color Correlated Temperature (CCT):

This measure of how "warm" or "cool" a light seems. A low CCT-below 3100 K-is a warm white light and below 3000K is considered ultra-warm white. The measurement of CCT is expressed in Kelvin (K). The reason this measurement is called a "temperature" is because it was derived from a theoretical object called a "black body radiator." When the radiator is heated, it changes from black to red to yellow to white to blue. The lower the Kelvin rating, the "warmer" or more yellow the light. The higher the rating, the "cooler" or more blue the light. Most lighting Kelvin temperature ranges from 2000k to 6400k.

Warm White and Ultra Warm White light is produced by traditional incandescent and halogen based products. Now these color temperatures have been achieve by Neo-Neon with LED Technology.

For a visual example of Kelvin range refer to the color illustration below: